Wednesday, March 5, 2014

The Edge of Chaos and Consciousness

To understand anything, one must know the patterns.

Complexity is nested within patterns.  Discover the Patterns and Complexity is simplified.

Chaos is a precursor to aligning spins. It is new groups of spin states that are attempting to fractalize.  Once spins stabilize within various systems, crystalline lattices are formed following the chaos-to-order first step: becoming fractal.

Probing the edge of chaos
by Staff Writers
Heidelberg, Germany (SPX) Mar 03, 2014
File image: central limit theorem.

The edge of chaos-right before chaos sets in-is a unique place. It is found in many dynamical systems that cross the boundary between a well-behaved dynamics and a chaotic one...

...Now, physicists have shown that the distribution-or frequency of occurrence-of the variables constituting the physical characteristics of such systems at the edge of chaos has a very different shape than previously reported distributions.

In probability theory, the central limit theorem was first developed by an 18th century French mathematician named Abraham de Moivre.

It applies to independent random physical quantities or variables, each with a well-defined expected value and well-defined way of varying. This theorem states that once iterated a sufficiently large number of times, these variable physical quantities will be approximately distributed along a central limit-also referred to as the attractor. In chaotic and standard random systems, such distribution is in the shape of a bell curve.

Now, new central limit theorems are emerging for more complex physical processes, such as natural phenomena. In this study, the authors took existing knowledge of the specific position of the attractor at the edge of chaos.

To do so, they employed a mathematical formula called the logistic map as a particular example of the dynamic system under study. They found that the distribution of physical properties of such dynamic systems at this specific point at the edge of chaos has a fractal structure not previously known.

M. A. Fuentes and A. Robledo (2014), Sums of variables at the onset of chaos, European Physical Journal B, DOI 10.1140/epjb/e2014-40882-1

Charge and magnetism with angular motion creating torus shapes of integer and half-integer spins inverting/reverting of the laterally spinning skein of the flowing torus:
Which is reminiscent of 'Klein Bottle' aspects:
These graphics do not show the overall field influences attributed to dipole magnetic charges, but we can imagine the overlapping magnetic field spins of multiple torus and their radiating influences that create areas of synergy, that when resonating harmonically, create something similar to standing waves within/without standing waves - thus fractal, as touched on in this beautifully written article about the Amplituhedron: Jewel at the Heart of Quantum Physics.  Coalescence throughout and within its parts/wholes (inverting/reverting nature of spin and magnetism) the influencing quantum spin states create relationship and organization that is life-like, moving and adjusting though still with 'membrane' areas of dual layer spin states, which can be read about here:

Pinwheel 'Living' Crystals and the Origin of Life
by Staff Writers Ann Arbor MI (SPX) Feb 26, 2014

U-M researchers have found in a simulation that simply inducing nanoparticles to spin causes them to self assemble into 'living rotating crystals.' The size and direction of the arrows indicate the movements of the particles, while the yellow and blue colors represent clockwise and counterclockwise spinners, respectively. The arrows arranged in orderly grids are particles that have formed rotating crystals, while the large, aligned arrows at the boundaries show how particles are driven along the interfaces. Image courtesy Sharon Glotzer.
Recently, researchers in the field have found that if particles are given energy for some basic motion, such as moving in one direction, they can begin to influence one another, forming groups. Glotzer's team looked at what would happen if the particles all were made to rotate.

"They organize themselves," said Daphne Klotsa, a research fellow in Glotzer's lab. "They developed collective dynamics that we couldn't have foreseen."

The team's computer simulation can be imagined as two sets of pinwheels on an air hockey table. The air pushing up from the table drives some of the pinwheels clockwise, and others counterclockwise. When the pinwheels are tightly packed enough that their blades catch on one another, the team found that they begin to divide themselves into clockwise and counter-clockwise spinners-a self-organizing behavior known among researchers as phase separation.

"The important finding here is that we get phase separation without real attraction," Klotsa said.
She calls the self-sorting counterintuitive because no direct forces push the same-spin pinwheels together or push opposite-spinners apart.

The separation occurs because of the way the pinwheel blades collide. While a pair of pinwheels may be spinning in the same direction, where their blades might meet, they're actually moving in opposite directions. This means that the blades will push into one another and stick together, causing the pair of pinwheels to rotate as one, at least briefly.

In contrast, the blades of opposite spinners are moving in the same direction where they meet, so they don't stick together. Since same-spinning pinwheels spend more time linked up, they gradually accumulate into groups.

When the pinwheels divide into clockwise and counterclockwise tribes, the boundary between the groups becomes a thoroughfare for particles in the mix that aren't spinning. The blades at the boundary push these nonspinning particles along the border, making them less likely to dive back into the denser collections of pinwheels. The team said this phenomenon could potentially be harnessed as a sort of nanopump to transport objects in a device.

All that is left is to find consciousness within these emerging quantum fractal spin states (amplituhedron) of attraction and repulsion and life-like organization.

Communication or rejection of communication is determined by resonance between proteins and their resonant ability to pass on information (info in the form of motion; sound, EM radiation, etc.).

Bacteria's Protein-Based 'Living Wires' Allow Electron Transference throughout Protein by use of Electricity
(Hugging Hemes Help Electrons Hop)
 by Mary Beckman for PNNL News Richland WA (SPX) Jan 23, 2014
Numbered heme groups (in color) lie within MtrF protein's framework (in gray) and shuttle electrons from one end of the protein to the other.

Within the bacteria's protein-based wire, molecular groups called hemes communicate with each other to allow electrons to hop along the chain like stepping stones. The researchers found that evolution has set the protein up so that, generally, when the electron's drive to hop is high, the heme stepping stones are less tightly connected, like being farther apart; when the drive to hop is low, the hemes are more closely connected, like being closer together. The outcome is an even electron flow along the wire.

This is the first time scientists have seen this evolutionary design principle for electron transport, the researchers reported Jan. 2 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition Online.

Living Wires Certain bacteria breathe using metal like people use oxygen. In the process, these bacteria steal electrons from carbon and ultimately transfer the electrons to metals or minerals in the ground. They do this by conducting electricity along molecular wires built into proteins, moving internal electrons to the outside of their cells. Researchers hope to use these bacteria in little biologic batteries or fuel cells.

But a living wire is not the same as those that make up our powerlines. Electrons in powerlines hurtle down the wire, moving smoothly from metal atom to metal atom. Electrons traveling in a living wire must get from one complex heme group to the next. The hemes are situated within a protein, and not all hemes are made the same.

Some hemes hold onto electrons tightly and others let electrons slip away easily. Depending on how the hemes are lined up, this can create energetic hills that electrons have a hard time climbing over, or energetic valleys that electrons easily march across.

The team found that instead of a smooth ride through the protein, electrons lurch through hemes: Sometimes the driving force makes the electrons march across a valley and the electrons move quickly. In other pairs the electrons face a hill, and electron travel gets delayed.

Mapping how tightly hemes couple to each other along with the driving force values, the team found that hemes were less tightly coupled when electrons enjoyed traipsing across a valley and more tightly coupled when electrons had to slog uphill.
Reference: Marian Breuer, Kevin M. Rosso, and Jochen Blumberger. Electron flow in multiheme bacterial cytochromes is a balancing act between heme electronic interaction and redox potentials, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, Early Edition online January 2, 2014. doi:10.1073/pnas.1316156111.

These fractal/holographic quantum manifestations spinning into material existence are structured by various spin states and organized into higher complex organic 'fields', first determined by complexity of spin states (Pinwheel 'Living' Crystals and the Origin of Life) - and acquiring more complex spin states developing towards a specific pattern of complexity that can access and then process [i]through [/i]protein as information into cells via electron transport via electricity and frequency rates.

The Symphony of Life, Revealed
by Staff Writers Buffalo NY (SPX) Jan 21, 2014
Using a new imaging technique they developed, scientists have managed to observe and document the vibrations of lysozyme, an antibacterial protein found in many animals. This graphic visualizes the vibrations in lysozyme as it is excited by terahertz light (depicted by the red wave arrow). Such vibrations, long thought to exist, have never before been described in such detail, said lead researcher Andrea Markelz, a UB physicist. Credit: Credit: Andrea Markelz and Katherine Niessen.

To observe the protein vibrations, Markelz' team relied on an interesting characteristic of proteins: The fact that they vibrate at the same frequency as the light they absorb...

...So, to study vibrations in lysozyme, Markelz and her colleagues exposed a sample to light of different frequencies and polarizations, and measured the types of light the protein absorbed...

..."If you tap on a bell, it rings for some time, and with a sound that is specific to the bell. This is how the proteins behave," Markelz said. "Many scientists have previously thought a protein is more like a wet sponge than a bell: If you tap on a wet sponge, you don't get any sustained sound."

Markelz said the team's technique for studying vibrations could be used in the future to document how natural and artificial inhibitors stop proteins from performing vital functions by blocking desired vibrations.

"We can now try to understand the actual structural mechanisms behind these biological processes and how they are controlled," Markelz said.

"The cellular system is just amazing," she said. "You can think of a cell as a little machine that does lots of different things - it senses, it makes more of itself, it reads and replicates DNA, and for all of these things to occur, proteins have to vibrate and interact with one another."

Which leads us finally to microtubules within the human brain, and how consciousness is somehow rising through the quantum states of resonance interacting through uncountable 'pulses' and echoes mainly encased within the skull.

Consciousness is everywhere.

Discovery of Quantum Vibrations in 'Microtubules' Corroborates Theory of Consciousness
The recent discovery of warm temperature quantum vibrations in microtubules inside brain neurons by the research group led by Anirban Bandyopadhyay, PhD, at the National Institute of Material Sciences in Tsukuba, Japan (and now at MIT), corroborates the pair's theory and suggests that EEG rhythms also derive from deeper level microtubule vibrations.
A review and update of a controversial 20-year-old theory of consciousness published in Physics of Life Reviews claims that consciousness derives from deeper level, finer scale activities inside brain neurons. The recent discovery of quantum vibrations in "microtubules" inside brain neurons corroborates this theory, according to review authors Stuart Hameroff and Sir Roger Penrose.

They suggest that EEG rhythms (brain waves) also derive from deeper level microtubule vibrations, and that from a practical standpoint, treating brain microtubule vibrations could benefit a host of mental, neurological, and cognitive conditions.

They suggested that quantum vibrational computations in microtubules were "orchestrated" ("Orch") by synaptic inputs and memory stored in microtubules, and terminated by Penrose "objective reduction" ('OR'), hence "Orch OR." Microtubules are major components of the cell structural skeleton.

The recent discovery of warm temperature quantum vibrations in microtubules inside brain neurons by the research group led by Anirban Bandyopadhyay, PhD, at the National Institute of Material Sciences in Tsukuba, Japan (and now at MIT), corroborates the pair's theory and suggests that EEG rhythms also derive from deeper level microtubule vibrations.

In addition, work from the laboratory of Roderick G. Eckenhoff, MD, at the University of Pennsylvania, suggests that anesthesia, which selectively erases consciousness while sparing non-conscious brain activities, acts via microtubules in brain neurons.

"The origin of consciousness reflects our place in the universe, the nature of our existence. Did consciousness evolve from complex computations among brain neurons, as most scientists assert? Or has consciousness, in some sense, been here all along, as spiritual approaches maintain?" ask Hameroff and Penrose in the current review.

"This opens a potential Pandora's Box, but our theory accommodates both these views, suggesting consciousness derives from quantum vibrations in microtubules, protein polymers inside brain neurons, which both govern neuronal and synaptic function, and connect brain processes to self-organizing processes in the fine scale, 'proto-conscious' quantum structure of reality."

After 20 years of skeptical criticism, "the evidence now clearly supports Orch OR," continue Hameroff and Penrose. "Our new paper updates the evidence, clarifies Orch OR quantum bits, or "qubits," as helical pathways in microtubule lattices, rebuts critics, and reviews 20 testable predictions of Orch OR published in 1998 - of these, six are confirmed and none refuted."

- Chad Adams

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