Thursday, September 30, 2010

Albert Einstein's Aether

Concerning the Investigation of the State of Aether in Magnetic Fields: by Albert Einstein
"When the electric current comes into being, it immediately sets the surrounding aether in some kind of instantaneous motion, the nature of which has still not been exactly determined. In spite of the continuation of the cause of this motion, namely the electric current, the motion ceases, but the aether remains in a potential state and produces a magnetic field. That the magnetic field is a potential state [of the aether] is shown by the [existence of a] permanent magnet, since the principle of conservation of energy excludes the possibility of a state of motion in this case. The motion of the aether, which is caused by an electric current, will continue until the acting [electro-] motive forces are compensated by the equivalent passive forces which arise from the deformation caused by the motion of the aether itself."

Einstein observes that the potential state of the Aether is shown by the existence of a permanent magnet, just as in the cathode ray tube and ferrofluid experiments above.

"The most interesting, but also the most difficult, task would be the direct experimental study of the magnetic field which arises around an electric current, because the investigation of the elastic state of the aether in this case would allow us to obtain a glimpse of the mysterious nature of the electric current. This analogy also permits us to draw definite conclusions concerning the state of the aether in the magnetic field which surrounds the electric current, provided of course the experiments mentioned above yield any result."

The "elastic state" of the Aether refers to the Aether's fluid behavior and its ability to return to a previous state without deformation. The insights into the "mysterious" nature of the electric current refers to the two different types of charges identified in the Aether Physics Model. Not only does electricity have a bipolar electrostatic charge, but it also has a bipolar electromagnetic charge. These two types of charges interact with each other in seemingly peculiar ways. Einstein could not have known it during his time, however, the two types of charges are the actual carriers of the forces quantified in his later developed, General Relativity theory.

"I believe that the quantitative researches on the absolute magnitudes of the density and the elastic force of the aether can only begin if qualitative results exist that are connected with established ideas. Let me add one more thing. If the wavelength does not turn out to be proportional to [sic], then the reason (for that) has to be looked for in the change of density of the moving aether caused by the elastic deformations; here A is the elastic aether force, a priori a constant which we have to determine empirically, and k the (variable) strength of the magnetic field which, of course, is proportional to the elastic forces in question that are produced."

The elastic Aether force Einstein presumes has been quantified in the Aether Physics Model as the Gforce. And, in fact, we have developed simple force laws for the electromagnetic charge, which are similar in structure to the Coulomb electrostatic force law and the Newton gravitational law. We also show that each of these force laws, including our strong force laws, directly involve the Gforce (elastic Aether force as Einstein called it). The total of all these simple and related force laws comprise the Unified Force Theory of the Aether Physics Model.

Sunday, September 26, 2010

Embracing the Unfamiliar...HISTORY

as awareness embraces the unfamiliar
our universe now no longer similiar
could it be that humanities history
is also not what was thought to be

imagine this..........
"During the Mesozoic, proto-Saturn (Ouranos) orbited the Sun in what is now the asteroid belt. It was probably the only body orbiting the Sun, its immense size locking it into a binary system which astronomers believe to be the more usual solar system formation. Earth and other satellites orbited proto-Saturn, which dominated the skies to the almost complete exclusion of the Sun and other celestial bodies; in comparison, the Sun was an insignificant body, proto-Saturn being the main source of heat and light. 
The Earth was dominated by the large single super-continent Pangaea, with the World Mountain at its epicentre, and surrounded by a fresh-water shallow Sea. Only a non-rotating synchronous orbit, with the super-continent locked into and facing proto-Saturn, would account for this stability. 
The climate was sub-tropical with high humidity. The synchronous (syn-, chronous: 'together with Saturn'?) orbit meant constant light and heat, and hence no variation in temperature. There were no tidal forces in the large shallow Sea, and hence no sedimentation. There were no seasons and hence minimal tree rings. 
Birds, mammals and our ancestors inhabited the planet during the Mesozoic and coexisted with the dinosaurs .
In much the same ways as our diversity exists today, cultures varied from the sophisticated, who lived towards the World Mountain, to the primitive who lived towards the edges of the super-continent. Giantism was common in this era of reduced gravitation and size and bulk were no disadvantage. 
The Earth and original satellites of proto-Saturn separated some 15,000-20,000 years ago and the Golden Mesozoic Age came to an end. Proto-Saturn separated into many parts, to form the gas giants Neptune and Uranus. Proto-Saturn became Saturn. Some of the smaller debris became moons of the outer planets and much remained in the original orbit as the asteroid belt. The events were witnessed by the peoples of the Earth and became the basis of the ancient catastrophic mythologies , beginning with the Genesis event 'Let There be Light'. During separation, Earth was saturated with radiation from proto-Saturn, which caused much mutation and was the catalyst for new sequences of evolution for many generations. The same radiation rendered all forms of radiometric dating useless, causing grossly exaggerated time-scales. 
Separated from proto-Saturn, planet Earth commenced rotation and the charge focused on the World Mountain dispersed. The Earth lost its inherent stability and, with the new centrifugal force, the super-continent separated and 'drifted', changing the pear-shaped Earth into its present shape. The dispersion of the charge, together with piezo-electro effects in the rocks, enabled the separation to take place in hours, rather than millions of years. 
The survivors of the catastrophe found themselves in a completely new environment: lower temperatures, seasons, diurnal variations, a changed atmosphere and an apparently greater gravitational effect. This was neither the environment, nor the 'solar' system, in which life had evolved."

Wednesday, September 22, 2010

the Super Harvest Moon - September 23rd

Sept. 22, 2010:  For the first time in almost 20 years, northern autumn is beginning on the night of a full Moon. The coincidence sets the stage for a "Super Harvest Moon" and a must-see sky show to mark the change of seasons.
The action begins at sunset on Sept 22nd, the last day of northern summer. As the sun sinks in the west, bringing the season to a close, the full Harvest Moon will rise in the east, heralding the start of fall. The two sources of light will mix together to create a kind of 360-degree, summer-autumn twilight glow that is only seen on rare occasions.

The Harvest Moon of Oct. 3, 2009, photographed by Catalin M. Timosca of Turda, Romania.
Keep an eye on the Moon as it creeps above the eastern skyline. The golden orb may appear strangely inflated. This is the Moon illusion at work. For reasons not fully understood by astronomers or psychologists, a low-hanging Moon appears much wider than it really is. A Harvest Moon inflated by the moon illusion is simply gorgeous.

The view improves as the night wears on.
Northern summer changes to fall on Sept. 22nd at 11:09 pm EDT. At that precise moment, called the autumnal equinox, the Harvest Moon can be found soaring high overhead with the planet Jupiter right beside it. The two brightest objects in the night sky will be in spectacular conjunction to mark the change in seasons.
The Harvest Moon gets its name from agriculture. In the days before electric lights, farmers depended on bright moonlight to extend the workday beyond sunset. It was the only way they could gather their ripening crops in time for market. The full Moon closest to the autumnal equinox became "the Harvest Moon," and it was always a welcome sight.

This one would be extra welcome because it is extra "Harvesty."

Usually, the Harvest Moon arrives a few days to weeks before or after the beginning of fall. It's close, but not a perfect match. The Harvest Moon of 2010, however, reaches maximum illumination a mere six hours after the equinox. This has led some astronomers to call it the "Harvestest Moon" or a "Super Harvest Moon." There hasn't been a comparable coincidence since Sept 23, 1991, when the difference was about 10 hours, and it won't happen again until the year 2029.

A Super Harvest Moon, a rare twilight glow, a midnight conjunction—rarely does autumn begin with such celestial fanfare.

Enjoy the show!

Monday, September 20, 2010

New Physics? Fundamental Cosmic Constant Now Seems Shifty --- CONSTANTS VARY (???)

This is a good example of why science is so crazy now...they have begun to claim that CONSTANTS vary...

New Physics? Fundamental Cosmic Constant Now Seems Shifty
Recent observations of distant galaxies suggest that the strength of the electromagnetic force – the so-called fine-structure constant – actually varies throughout the universe. In one direction, the constant seemed to grow larger the farther astronomers looked; in another direction the constant took on smaller values with greater distance.

If confirmed, this revelation could reshape physicists' understanding of cosmology from the ground up. It may even help solve a major conundrum: Why are all the constants of nature perfectly tuned for life to exist?

...A changing constant

Astrophysicists have been studying the fine-structure constant – known as the alpha constant – for years, searching for hints that it might change. Some projects have found evidence that the constant does vary, while other probes confirmed the constant's constancy. [The Greatest Mysteries in Science]

...For Flambaum and others, it seemed like too much of a coincidence that the universe's constants – which includes the alpha constant and others like the value of the strength of gravity, or the strength of the strong interaction that binds atomic nuclei together – should be perfect for building stars and planets and life.

"Now we have an explanation," Flambaum said."If fundamental constants vary in space, we just appear in the area of the universe where constants are good for us."

They are talking about the alpha constant, or the fine-structure constant. 
In physics, the fine-structure constant (usually denoted α, the Greek letter alpha) is a fundamental physical constant, namely the coupling constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction. The numerical value of α is the same in all systems of units, because α is a dimensionless quantity...

...Physicists have pondered for many years whether the fine structure constant is in fact constant, i.e., whether or not its value differs by location and over time. Specifically, a varying α has been proposed as a way of solving problems in cosmology and astrophysics...

...The anthropic principle is a controversial explanation of why the fine-structure constant takes on the value it does: stable matter, and therefore life and intelligent beings, could not exist if its value were much different.

Monday, September 6, 2010

New Thought on Planetary Formation

I don't know why I think of things like this, or how it comes into my mind, but I figured out a way to create planets that has never before been proposed, that I am aware of.

Briefly, stars create water merely from certain light wavelengths ...water attracts to water especially with high voltage and 'vacuum' (Water Bridge Experiment) Interstellar cloud comes across star...whatever the mechanism of initiation, whether it already be an object caught by star, or one entering that gets caught, a conduit is formed through cloud, much like a magnetic flux tube ...denser the cloud, faster the transfer to orbiting object If it even needs an orbiting object to have a conduit. Maybe, actually I think this is more likely, elements get transfered from star to densest part of passing cloud column, making it ever denser and also trapped in sun's gravitational electric/magnetic field. Presto, a proto-planet is born. And, after eons of going in and out of passing clouds, further formation occurs...with all necessary life ingredients coming and/or being transfered from the sun itself...including, INCREDIBLY, water.

So, we go from planets being formed able to sustain life as an extreme

This needs to be worked out, but on its surface, there is ABSOLUTELY NO glaring fallibilities of formation this way. Now that we know about interstellar clouds and EU and the attraction that is created through energy...a missing piece would be the accumulation of water. But now that it is known that stars create water vapor, and the Water Bridge experiment...

How do you create water in Space? - Just Add STARLIGHT

Recipe for water: just add starlight

2 September 2010
ESA’s Herschel infrared space observatory has discovered that ultraviolet starlight is the key ingredient for making water in space. It is the only explanation for why a dying star is surrounded by a gigantic cloud of hot water vapour.
Every recipe needs a secret ingredient. When astronomers discovered an unexpected cloud of water vapour around the old star IRC+10216 in 2001, they immediately began searching for the source. Stars like IRC+10216 are known as carbon stars and are thought not to make much water. Initially they suspected the star’s heat must be evaporating comets or even dwarf planets to produce the water.
Now, Herschel’s PACS and SPIRE instruments have revealed that the secret ingredient is ultraviolet light, because the water is too hot to have come from the destruction of icy celestial bodies.  

“This is a good example of how better instruments can change our picture completely,” says Leen Decin, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium, the lead author of the paper about this work. The superb sensitivity of Herschel’s instruments has revealed that the water around IRC+10216 varies in temperature from about –200°C to 800°C, which indicates that it is being formed much closer to the star than comets can stably exist.
IRC+10216 is a red giant star, hundreds of times the Sun’s size, although only a few times its mass. If it replaced the Sun in our Solar System, it would extend beyond the orbit of Mars.
It is 500 light years away and while it is barely detectable at visible wavelengths, even in the largest telescopes, it is the brightest star in the sky at some infrared wavelengths. This is because it is surrounded by a huge envelope of dust that absorbs almost all its visible radiation and re-emits it as infrared light. It is in the envelope that the water vapour has been found. But how did the water get there?
The vital clue was found by Herschel. Observations had already revealed the clumpy structure in the dusty envelope around IRC+10216. The Herschel water detection made the astronomers realise that ultraviolet light from surrounding stars can reach deep into the envelope between the clumps and break up molecules such as carbon monoxide and silicon monoxide, releasing oxygen atoms. The oxygen atoms then attach themselves to hydrogen molecules, forming water.
“This is the only mechanism that explains the full range of the water’s temperature,” says Decin. The closer to the star the water is formed, the hotter it will be.
Decin and her colleagues now plan to extend the observations to other carbon stars. “We are very hopeful that Herschel will find the same situations around those stars too,” she says.
On Earth, carbon compounds and water are the key ingredients for life. Now, thanks to Herschel, we know that both can be made around IRC+10216, and that the secret ingredient for water is ultraviolet light from surrounding stars.

The Earth and Heliosphere - Brief

How do the Earth and Heliosphere respond?

Our planet is immersed in this seemingly invisible yet exotic and inherently dangerous environment. Above the protective cocoon of Earth’s lower atmosphere is a plasma soup composed of electrified and magnetized matter entwined with penetrating radiation and energetic particles. The Earth’s magnetic field interacts with the Sun’s outer atmosphere to create this extraordinary environment.
Our Sun’s explosive energy output forms an immense, complex magnetic fields structure. Hugely inflated by the solar wind, this colossal bubble of magnetism known as the heliosphere stretches far beyond the orbit of Pluto, from where it controls the entry of cosmic rays into the solar system. On its way through the Milky Way this extended atmosphere of the Sun affects all planetary bodies in the solar system. It is itself influenced by slowly changing interstellar conditions that in turn can affect Earth’s habitability. In fact, the Sun’s extended atmosphere drives some of the greatest changes in the near-Earth space environment affecting our magnetosphere, atmosphere, ionosphere, and potentially our climate.
Related missions:
*Sort missions by clicking Launch DateA-Z, or PHASE column headers.
Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) observes particles of solar, interplanetary, interstellar, and galactic origins, spanning the energy range from solar wind ions to galactic cosmic ray nuclei. This mission is part of SMD's Explorers Program. This mission is part of SMD's ...
Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) is a mission to determine the causes of the highest altitude clouds in the Earth's atmosphere. The number of clouds in the middle atmosphere (mesosphere) over the Earth's poles has been increasing over ...
The Coupled Ion-Neutral Dynamics Investigations (CINDI) is a mission to understand the dynamics of the Earth's ionosphere. CINDI will provide two instruments for the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite, a project of the United States Air Force. This mission ...
Cluster is a European Space Agency program with major NASA involvement. The 4 Cluster spacecraft are providing a detailed three-dimensional map of the magnetosphere, with surprising results. This mission is part of SMD's Heliophysics Research program.
Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer (FAST) studies the detailed plasma physics of the Earth's auroral regions. Ground support campaigns coordinate satellite measurements with ground observations of the Aurora Borealis, commonly referred to as the Northern Lights. The science instruments on board ...
The GEOTAIL mission is a collaborative project undertaken by the Japanese Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and NASA. Its primary objective is to study the tail of the Earth's magnetosphere. The information gathered is allowing scientists to model ...
HeliophysicsHinode (Solar-B)
Hinode (formerly known as Solar-B) is a Japanese ISAS mission proposed as a follow-on to the highly successful Japan/US/UK Yohkoh (Solar-A) collaboration. The mission consists of a coordinated set of optical, EUV and X-ray instruments that are studying the interaction ...
IBEX will be the first mission designed to detect the edge of the Solar System. As the solar wind from the sun flows out beyond Pluto, it collides with the material between the stars, forming a shock front. This mission ...
The Magnetospheric Multiscale mission will determine the small-scale basic plasma processes which transport, accelerate and energize plasmas in thin boundary and current layers – and which control the structure and dynamics of the Earth's magnetosphere. MMS will for the first ...
Polar is the second of two NASA spacecraft in the Global Geospace Science (GGS) initiative and part of the ISTP Project. GGS is designed to improve greatly the understanding of the flow of energy, mass and momentum in the solar-terrestrial ...
The RBSP mission will provide scientific understanding, ideally to the point of predictability, of how populations of relativistic electrons and ions in space form and change in response to variable inputs of energy from the Sun.
Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) studies solar flares in X-rays and gamma-rays. It explores the basic physics of particle acceleration and explosive energy release in these energetic events in the Sun's atmosphere. This is accomplished by imaging ...
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is a solar observatory studying the structure, chemical composition, and dynamics of the solar interior. SOHO a joint venture of the European Space Agency and NASA. This mission is part of SMD's Heliophysics Research program.
HeliophysicsSolar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)
The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is the first mission and crown jewel in a fleet of NASA missions to study our sun. The mission is the cornerstone of a NASA science program called Living With a Star (LWS). The goal ...
HeliophysicsSolar Probe Plus
Solar Probe Plus will be a historic mission, flying into one of the last unexplored regions of the solar system, the Sun’s atmosphere or corona, for the first time. This mission is part of SMD's LWS Program.
1Under Study
Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) is a study of the onset of magnetic storms within the tail of the Earth's magnetosphere. THEMIS will fly five microsatellite probes through different regions of the magnetosphere and observe ...
Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) observes the effects of the emergence of magnetic flux from deep inside the Sun to the outer corona with high spatial and temporal resolution. This mission is part of SMD's Heliophysics Explorers program. This ...
HeliophysicsTWINS A & B
TWINS will provide stereo imaging of the Earth's magnetosphere, the region surrounding the planet controlled by its magnetic field and containing the Van Allen radiation belts and other energetic charged particles. This mission is part of SMD's Explorers Program. This ...
The Ulysses Mission is the first spacecraft to explore interplanetary space at high solar latitudes, orbiting the Sun nearly perpendicular to the plane in which the planets orbit. This mission is part of SMD's Heliophysics Research program.
Wind studies the solar wind and its impact on the near-Earth environment. This mission is part of SMD's Heliophysics Research program.